Entrepreneurship is highly supported by the government these days. There are many ways to become an entrepreneur including becoming a home worker. Home worker is someone who carries out activity carried out primarily by women, and family members for generations starting from grandmothers, and mothers to daughters by running a business. Working as a home worker may be done by both men and women, however there is an intriguing phenomenon in Kapanewon Banguntapan, Bantul where many home worker activities are carried out by women, and more notably, the majority are in the culinary industry. This became a concern for UNY Graduate student Yhola Kiki Nor Faridha (Students of the Master of Family Welfare Education study program), who conducted research on the issue.
She explained that the phenomenon of home workers in Banguntapan arose as a result of the Covid-19 outbreak, in which many people were laid off owing to the failure of the firm where they worked. Hence, the pandemic-affected community attempted to carry out economic activities by working at home as home workers to generate income for household sustainability, such as buying groceries, completing home goods, sending children to school, purchasing clothes, transportation, and other needs. "Being a home worker can be used as a part-time job while taking care of the household. However, due to economic pressures, home business work can be used as a job with the main income," said Yhola, Friday (10/2). According to her, 301 women work as food sellers because selling food products has various profits, food is a basic need consumed three times a day, so it is always needed and is included in human physiological needs. In food sales, the cooking process is quite simple and does not require complicated techniques. Food is offered in the form of rice, side dishes, cooked vegetables, and snacks. Selling food is a job that is not a big risk because it could sell more than selling products in other industries.
Yhola explained that the challenges faced by the entrepreneur workers are not developing independent businesses because they do not master the entrepreneurial spirit and lack customer service. Low entrepreneurial spirit and business motivation are included in the shortcomings of entrepreneurs who want to improve their businesses. Therefore, it is very important to increase the entrepreneurial spirit in the hopes of being able to carry out work vigorously. While the income of home workers is influenced by the amount of time devoted, this activity is a matter that means the longer the productive time used, the higher the income.
According to the daughter of the couple Sumpomo and Marharini, the results of research using Maslow's Theory obtained, the entrepreneurial motivation of women home workers has an average of 81.70 in the Moderate category (55%). So, it can be seen that the level of motivation of women having the entrepreneurial motivation to build and implement businesses as home workers in the culinary field is in the Moderate category. "The highest indicator is social needs while the lowest indicator is physiological needs," said Yhola. The entrepreneurial spirit of home workers' women has an average of 56.38 in the Medium category (55%). The highest indicator is self-confidence, while the lowest indicator is initiative. The time devotion of home workers women has an average of 5.7 in the Medium category (60%). Based on the results of data analysis by calculating the mean (average), the highest indicator of the five attitudes of the Entrepreneurial Spirit is the Self-Confidence indicator of 298.00 with an average of 80 respondents of 3.72. This explains that women home workers in Kapanewon Banguntapan work with confidence in the work they have built and run. The women home workers are not embarrassed about what they do and believe that the business they run is capable of improving their prosperity and standard of living towards a better one and they are not afraid to compete in entrepreneurship even though many traders in the culinary business sell the same products. The social needs indicator explains that women home workers in Kapanewon Banguntapan work with the motivation to fulfill social needs because people are actually social creatures who seek relationships, strengthen colleagues in the culinary industry, help each other, and give and receive both goods and money. Surprisingly, the average income of women home workers in Kapanewon Banguntapan is IDR 1,511,875 per month, which is only slightly below the Bantul Regency minimum wage of IDR 1,916,848. Working as a home worker generates income slightly below the Bantul minimum wage standard but has contributed 27% to family income. The alumni of S1 Boga Technical Education, Faculty of Engineering UNY, suggested that Kapanewon Banguntapan should organize training for both home workers and homemakers in opening and running a business, such as courses in the field of culinary, with products for making pastries, jajanan pasar (indonesian charcuterie spread), rice, and side dishes to modern snacks. So that it can further increase business motivation, and entrepreneurial spirit and devote time as encouragement and attitude in running a business, because this can affect the income earned.
This research succeeded in bringing Yhola to become one of the summae cum laude graduates with a perfect GPA of 4.00 at UNY graduation last December. (Author : Dedy, Editor : Sudar, Translator : Rinjani)